will show you the files in your current directory. Used with certain options, you can see sizes of files, when files were made, and permissions of files. Example: "ls ~" will show you the files that are in your home directory.
sudo ls -l /etc/fstab
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 846 2009-12-08 15:46 /etc/fstab
-rw-r--r-- are the file rights for the owner/group/others
root and root are the owner/group for this file
846 is the size of that file in bytes
2009-12-08 15:46 is the created/modified date
All the command options for this command are:
Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, --all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all do not list implied . and ..
--author with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
--block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks
-B, --ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
modification of file status information)
with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime
-C list entries by columns
--color[=WHEN] control whether color is used to distinguish file
types. WHEN may be `never', `always', or `auto'
-d, --directory list directory entries instead of contents,
and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, --dired generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
-F, --classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
--file-type likewise, except do not append `*'
--format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
--full-time like -l --time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
group directories before files.
augment with a --sort option, but any
use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, --no-group in a long listing, don't print group names
-h, --human-readable with -l, print sizes in human readable format
(e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory
--hide=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
(overridden by -a or -A)
--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p),
file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k like --block-size=1K
-l use a long listing format
-L, --dereference when showing file information for a symbolic
link, show information for the file the link
references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, --literal print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
-o like -l, but do not list group information
append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars print ? instead of non graphic characters
--show-control-chars show non graphic characters as-is (default
unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
--quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names:
literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, --reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size
--sort=WORD sort by WORD instead of name: none -U,
extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v
--time=WORD with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification
time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c,
or status -c; use specified time as sort key
--time-style=STYLE with -l, show times using style STYLE:
full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.
FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to
non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE
takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t sort by modification time
-T, --tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time
with -l: show access time and sort by name
otherwise: sort by access time
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=COLS assume screen width instead of current value
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context print any SELinux security context of each file
-1 list one file per line
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit
SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.
By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is
equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the
optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With
--color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected
to a terminal (tty). The environment variable LS_COLORS can influence the
colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.
will allow you to change directories. When you open a terminal you will be in your home directory. To move around the file system you will use cd.
navigates into the root directory
navigates into your home directory
navigates up one directory level
navigates to the previous directory (or back)
navigates through multiple levels of directory at once. This one goes directly to the /www subdirectory of /var/
will make a copy of a file for you
cp file foo
will make a exact copy of "file" and name it "foo", but the file "file" will still be there
cp -r directory foo
this is for copying a directory (copy recursively)
will move a file to a different location or will rename a file
mv file foo
will rename the file "file" to "foo"
mv foo /var/www
will move the file "foo" to your "/var/www" directory but will not rename it
remove or delete a file in your directory or a directory
will delete foo
rm -r /var/www
will delete "/var/www" directory recursively
will delete an empty directory
allows you to create directories
will create a directory called "music"
shows you the manual of other commands
will get the man page for man itself